What Is Spo2 On Samsung Health

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How to measure blood oxygen saturation with a Samsung phone

The saturation of oxygen in your blood, often known as SpO2, is a measurement of the amount of oxygen in your blood. SpO2 may be detected on several Samsung phones utilizing a number of sensors on the back of the phone using a technique known as pulse oximetry, which involves emitting and absorbing a light wave via the blood vessels in your fingertip. Despite the fact that Samsung has moved this function around quite a bit and in some cases completely deleted it from many of its newer phones in recent years, it may still be a valuable health statistic if your device still has the capability to read SpO2.

Products used in this guide

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How to measure oxygen saturation

According to the information provided above, Samsung has phased out many of its once-commonplace sensors on newer phones such as the Galaxy S20, but older handsets such as the Galaxy S10 are still capable of detecting oxygen saturation through the Samsung Health app. It’s a rather straightforward procedure, provided that your phone is capable of doing so. Here are the simple procedures for checking your blood’s oxygen saturation.

  1. Launch the Samsung Health application. EnableOxygen saturation by selecting Manage Items from the drop-down menu. Return to the main screen of the app and choose Measurennext to Oxygen saturation to begin measuring. As soon as you are instructed, press your finger on the oxygen saturation sensor on the back of your phone. Maintain complete stillness while your phone measures oxygen saturation levels.

Following the completion of the oxygen saturation measurement by your phone, you will be told that it is safe to remove your phone from the sensor, following which you will be provided with a percentage indicating your oxygen saturation levels. You’ll also see your heart rate in bpm (beats per minute), and you can press on the information button to learn more about what SpO2 is and how to achieve the most accurate measurement possible. This same page also provides the option of saving or discarding the data you just collected and analyzed.

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What phones support SpO2 readings?

Samsung has removed the numerous health monitoring sensors from its latest phones, such as the S20, but there are still lots of older devices that can measure your blood oxygen saturation levels, according to the company. Even as early as the Galaxy S5 and Galaxy Note 4, Samsung began adding the SpO2 sensor on its smartphones, with support continuing all the way to the Galaxy S10 and Galaxy Note 9 smartphones. The Samsung Galaxy S and Note devices from any of the six versions listed above are fully compatible with each other.

Different sensors for measuring your heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation will be included in different models; the software will tell you exactly where to position your finger for each of these measurements.

Phone used in this guide

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How Does Samsung Health Measure Blood Oxygen?

The purpose of this quick tutorial is to explain “How does Samsung Health monitor blood oxygen,” what oxygen saturation is, how to test oxygen saturation levels in the Samsung Galaxy smartphone, the mechanism that is used to detect oxygen saturation levels, and much more.

How does Samsung Health measure blood oxygen?

Samsung health measures blood oxygen levels with the use of the smartphone’s integrated sensors, according to the company. Some Samsung cellphones are fitted with a sensor that measures heart rate and oxygen saturation levels in the blood.

What is oxygen saturation?

The phrase “oxygen saturation” refers to the amount of oxygen in the blood. The blood is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. Because it is the only protein in the body that can bind to oxygen molecules, hemoglobin is critical in the transportation of oxygen throughout the body. As a result, the protein structure can exist in two states: oxygenated haemoglobin and deoxygenated haemoglobin (see Figure 1). The oxygen saturation is calculated by dividing the amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin by the amount of non-oxygen-carrying hemoglobin in the blood.

Reduced levels of oxygen saturation (SpO2) can result in a condition known as hypoxemia, which is extremely dangerous and potentially deadly if not treated immediately.

How is oxygen saturation measured?

The oxygen saturation level in the blood is measured using an oximeter or oxygen measuring sensors. An electronic gadget that is clipped onto the fingertip is called a pulse oximeter, and it is the device that is most commonly utilized in the clinical setting for this purpose. It monitors the heart rate as well as the levels of oxygen saturation in the blood. Instructions on how to use your Samsung smartphone to test oxygen saturation. Activate the Samsung Health app on your Samsung smartphone by tapping on it.

3rd step: You will see that the sensor at the rear of the device is generating red light.

Step 4:After you have finished, take your fingertip away from the sensor and you will be able to see your data on the following screen.

The mechanism behind the Samsung Health SpO2 measurement

The MAX86916 is a biosensor developed by Maxim Integrated that is utilized in the Samsung s10, and it is an independently manufactured biosensor. It is an integrated optical sensor having applications in biosensing, proximity sensing, and color sensing among others. The interior construction of the MAX86916 is comprised of LEDs, photodetectors, and low-noise circuits, as well as circuitry for rejecting ambient light. In the electronics industry, LEDs are light-emitting diodes that emit light at a certain wavelength.

  • The LEDs of the MAX86916 sensor shine light onto the fingertip when it is activated.
  • The unique qualities of oxygenated blood include the ability to absorb light of a certain wavelength.
  • The opposite is true: deoxygenated hemoglobin absorbs more red light and enables more infrared light to pass through than normal hemoglobin.
  • Light transmission or reflection from a body segment, such as a finger, is measured using a photodetector that measures light transmission or reflection at two distinct wavelengths (usually in the red and infra-red).

The absorption of infrared red light indicates more oxygenated blood, whereas the absorption of red light indicates that the blood has insufficient oxygen.

What is a healthy SpO2 reading?

When the oxygen saturation is measured, a percentage will be shown on the computer screen for reference. This proportion should be between 94 percent and 100 percent, since this indicates a healthy quantity of hemoglobin in the blood, which is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. If the reading is less than 90 percent, you should consult with a physician.

Should I use my phone to check my blood oxygen levels?

Pulse oximeters are medical devices that are specifically designed to measure blood oxygen levels in clinical settings. Smartphones, such as the Samsung Galaxy Smartphones, now include an integrated oxygen sensor, which is a significant advancement. This makes it simpler to check the oxygen levels in your blood at home. In a pandemic-affected world where COVID-19 has been shown to cause low amounts of oxygen in people, knowing SpO2 values would be beneficial in diagnosing any significant health problem.

The issue remains, however, as to how precise the smartphone sensor would be when compared to the gadget now in use at the clinic.

How accurate is Samsung Health SpO2 measurement?

The SpO2 sensors on the Samsung Galaxy S4 measure with an accuracy of 90 to 100 percent. However, they cannot be used as a substitute for the clinically used equipment since the process by which the smartphone detects saturation is slightly different from the mechanism utilized by the medically used device (see figure). What are the advantages of being aware of your oxygen saturation levels? Individuals infected with COVID-19 had decreased oxygen levels during the pandemic because their lung capacity had been lowered as a result of the virus’s status as a respiratory virus.

Doctors have observed that some COVID-19 patients have developed a syndrome known as “silent hypoxia,” in which they appear to be comfortable but do not experience any shortness of breath, despite the fact that their oxygen levels are dangerously low.

For patients at home, the Samsung Health app would be extremely useful since it would detect low SpO2 levels, which can be a warning indication of imminent danger, and the test might assist in getting the patient to the appropriate medical treatment.

References:

The most recent update was made on April 25th, 2020 at 15:42 UTC+01:00. Despite the fact that Samsung’s newest flagship phones do not have this capability, earlier handsets such as the Galaxy S10series are equipped with a sensor that can assess the quantity of oxygen in your blood, also known as peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2). The Samsung SpO2 sensor is designed to function in combination with the Health application.

In terms of technical specifications, the sensor measures oxygen saturation levels by transmitting and receiving a laser beam via the skin and blood vessels of your fingertip. Samsung Health then displays the information gathered as a consequence of the analysis.

How to measure SpO2 levels

Samsung Health should be launched on your Galaxy mobile as the first step. To measure stress, go all the way down to Stress and tapMeasure. Step 3:Place your fingertip on the SpO2 sensor and remain completely motionless while the measurement is being taken. When finished, pull your fingertip away from the sensor, and you will be able to see your data in the subsequent window. My Stressscreen is a personal preference. Users of Samsung Health who are unable to locate these steps should note the following: The method oxygen saturation measurements are gathered through the Health app was altered by Samsung last year, causing some users to believe that the capability had been withdrawn completely.

  1. When following the instructions above, you can also use the older way of reading your SpO2 levels inside Samsung Health if you are unable to do so.
  2. Scroll to the bottom and choose Manage items, then turn on Oxygen saturation if necessary.
  3. Step 4: Place your fingertip on the SpO2 sensor and maintain complete stillness during the measuring procedure.
  4. Which of the two ways described above is more effective for you?
  5. Please share your thoughts in the comments area.
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How Does Samsung Health Measure Oxygen Saturation?

Throughout this tutorial, we’ll cover topics such as “How does Samsung health monitor oxygen saturation,” “What is oxygen saturation,” and “How to test oxygen saturation in old and new Samsung phones.” In addition, we will explore an ongoing debate among the scientific community regarding how inaccurate smartphone technology is at detecting SpO2 and how some scientists believe it is not physically viable to measure SpO2 with a smartphone in this manner.

How does Samsung health measure oxygen saturation?

“How does Samsung Health monitor oxygen saturation?” you might think. as an example, how can you monitor your SpO2 levels using only your smartphone instead of a pulse oximeter? Individuals with COVID-19 have decreased oxygen levels during the pandemic because their lung capacity is lowered as a result of the virus’s classification as a respiratory virus, which means it is contagious. Therefore, monitoring your oxygen saturation levels while on the road may be quite beneficial. After that, to measure your oxygen saturation levels using your Samsung mobile, launch the Samsung Health app, which you can get for free from the Google Play Store if you don’t already have it on your device.

If you don’t see it, select Manage Things from the drop-down menu.

Afterwards, you’ll see the stress option shown on the screen, which you can select by tapping on it.

It will ask you to place your finger on the sensor, which you can find near where the camera’s flash is located on the device. Immediately after placing your finger on the sensor, you will see that it will illuminate and begin capturing the measurement.

What is Oxygen saturation?

The SpO2 (also known as oxygen saturation) is a measurement of the amount of oxygen in your bloodstream. Numerous smartphones are equipped with a number of sensors on the back of the device that, according to the manufacturer, may detect blood oxygen levels using a technique known as pulse oximetry, which produces and absorbs light waves through blood vessels in your fingertip. This feature, however, has been deleted from some of Samsung’s more recent phones, but if your smartphone still has this capability, it can be beneficial at times.

Instead, you may use the stress tracker to detect your oxygen saturation level while also evaluating your stress level.

Instruction on how to measure SpO2 levels in old and new versions

If you have an older Samsung smartphone with an oxygen saturation sensor, you may still be able to access the ‘Oxygen saturation’ feature. However, as previously stated, this option is no longer available on later models; instead, it has been moved to the ‘Stress’ part of the settings menu. For those of you who have a newer model, here are the procedures you should take to check your SpO2 levels: Samsung Health should be launched on your Galaxy smartphone in Step 1. Step 2: Scroll all the way down to Stress and press on Measure (if applicable).

Step 4: When you’re finished, take your fingertip from the sensor, and you’ll be able to check your statistics on the My Stress page that appears.

Step 2: Scroll to the bottom of the page and touch on Manage things.

Step 3: From the app’s main screen, select Measure next to Oxygen saturation from the list of options.

Should I use my phone to check my blood oxygen saturation level?

Pulse oximeters are medical devices that can measure the amount of oxygen in your blood. They are often used in medical services or when the necessity arises to assess oxygen levels. If you’ve been following the virus’s global evolution, you’ve probably seen that it is more aggressive in people who have a weaker immune system and reduced breathing capacities, which causes them to have fewer or lower oxygen concentrations in their blood than the general population. As a result, an increasing number of people are attempting to discover other methods of keeping track of their health on their own during these periods.

According to androidcentral.com, “for years, phone manufacturers such as Samsung and a slew of app developers have pitched the idea that you could use your phone to measure heart rate and even blood oxygen data, but as evidence accumulated that this was not the most effective solution, the idea was abandoned.” The use of smartwatches with integrated SpO2 sensors to monitor one’s blood oxygen levels is becoming increasingly popular, with smartphones becoming less and less common as a major alternative for such reasons.

But, is this a good option in all cases? So let’s get into it a little more in depth.

Scientific evidence

According to a study conducted by the University of Oxford, there is no proof that any smartphone technology is accurate when it comes to measuring blood oxygen saturation for therapeutic usage or for research purposes. Furthermore, it is indicated that it should not be relied upon in the clinical evaluation of patients. According to scientists, oxygen saturation is defined as the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood relative to the total amount of hemoglobin in the blood, which includes both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin.

Following that, as previously said, they come to the conclusion that it is not physically viable to detect SpO2 using current smartphone technology, and that the existing research that may have been published raise severe concerns about the accuracy of the measurements.

Why is this blog about How does Samsung health measure oxygen saturation important?

As we described in the article ‘How does Samsung health monitor oxygen saturation?’, manufacturers such as Samsung have added a sensor for measuring oxygen saturation in their products. According to the scientific community, there is currently no smartphone technology that can assess SpO2 levels in a clinically appropriate manner, as we have already described. But if you are one of the people who uses one of those cellphones, you may continue to use it as long as you are careful since the findings are subject to interpretation and should not be interpreted as a diagnostic or a method of preventing medical disorders.

Thank you for reading!

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about How does Samsung health measure oxygen saturation

The following are the procedures to take if you wish to check your SpO2 using the Samsung Health app: Step 1: On your Galaxy mobile, open Samsung Health and log in. Measure stress by scrolling all the way down to the bottom of the page in Step 2. Step 3: Place your fingertip on the SpO2 sensor and maintain complete stillness while the measurement is being taken.

Can I check my oxygen level?

If you have enabled background measures in the settings of your smartwatch, it will be able to test your blood oxygen level at any time throughout the day. You can also take many measurements during the day if you require more than one. As an example, if you have an Apple Watch, you may use the Blood Oxygen app to check your blood oxygen level at any time.

Is oxygen saturation on phones accurate?

When it comes to detecting oxygen saturation, there is a great deal of debate over how precise a phone can be. On cebm.net, it is said that the app “measures oxygen saturation within 90-100 percent with an accuracy of 0-4 RSM when compared to a medical-grade oximeter.” … As the authors point out, “reliability is low for the camera-based software,” even when the same patient is examined by two investigators who are within 1 to 2 minutes of each other.

Is Samsung health accurate?

The Samsung Health app is widely regarded as accurate and effective in its intended function. Although the software is compatible with the majority of Android smartphones, not all of them will have key capabilities such as heart rate tracking or blood oxygen saturation monitoring.

Can I check my oxygen level on my Samsung phone?

In order to check your oxygen level on your Samsung phone, launch the Samsung Health app and select Manage Items from the drop-down menu. Return to the main screen of the app after enabling oxygen saturation. Place your finger on the sensor, which is normally placed on the back of the phone, after tapping Measure next to Oxygen saturation and when requested, you should be fine.

References

Youtube.com androidcentral.com In this tutorial, we will show you how to detect blood oxygen saturation levels with a Samsung phone and Samsung Health. Androidcentral.com In order to monitor your blood oxygen saturation level, you should probably avoid using your phone. Sammobile.comcebm.net Please let us know if you like this content. That’s the only way we’ll be able to make progress.

How to measure blood oxygen with your Samsung mobile

In recent years, phone technology has advanced dramatically as a result of the internal sensors built into the devices, providing users with several new features on their mobile devices. Samsung is one of the technological corporations that is most concerned about the environment, as seen by the last lines of the Galaxy series, which is a testament to this. One of the most significant values in a human being is the amount of oxygen in his or her blood; in order to measure this value, a device, namely an oximeter, must be used.

When using your Samsung mobile to measure blood oxygen levels, no extra application will be required, unless you do not have it loaded on your smartphone.

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What is SpO2?

It is the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood, and it is normally tested with a pulse oximeter or pulse oximeter with a blood pressure monitor. When it comes to the positive value, it should be between 95 and 100 in order to be deemed normal; if it is lower, it is essential to visit a specialist in order to maintain track of the intakes. A pulse oximeter must be used appropriately in order to determine the results and, as a result, to learn a bit more about this point, which, together with the voltage, is critical in controlling the heart rate.

Samsung health

The Samsung Health application was developed by the firm to assist you in monitoring your health by automatically recording a variety of actions, all of which are designed to help you live a healthy life. A number of components on the main page, such as daily steps taken, time spent participating in physical activities, and other data may be customized using the app. Samsung Health keeps track of and controls all of your fitness activities, including running, swimming, cycling, and a variety of other sporting activities.

Samsung’s Health will also ask you for information that is required to keep it working, such as the amount of water you drink each day and the foods and snacks you consume on a regular basis. Nutritional Balance will offer you with all of the vitamins and nutrients that you need on a regular basis.

What Samsung phones have an oxygen meter?

The Samsung S and Note series are the only ones that have an oxygen meter built in at the present, and those models are the only ones that have one built in. The majority of new models have chosen to do away with this sensor, which is ideal as long as we do not have to purchase a gadget from a specialist retailer. Samsung is precisely one of the firms that has made the most investment when it comes to incorporating R D into their phones, but it is not always possible to integrate all of the features.

Please clean the surface with a gentle cloth on a regular basis to keep it in good condition.

Do not move during the measurement, and position your finger at the height of the nail, which is necessary if you want to get an accurate measurement.

  • Samsung Galaxy S5
  • Samsung Galaxy S6
  • Samsung Galaxy Edge S6
  • Samsung Galaxy S7
  • Samsung Galaxy S8
  • Samsung Galaxy S9
  • Samsung Galaxy S10
  • Samsung Galaxy S10 +
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 5
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 7
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 8
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 9
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 10
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 11
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 12
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 13
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 14
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 15
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 16
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 17
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 18
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 19
  • Samsung Samsung Galaxy Note 4, Samsung Galaxy Note 5, Samsung Galaxy Note 6, Samsung Galaxy Note 7, Samsung Galaxy Note 8, and Samsung Galaxy Note 9. Samsung Galaxy Note 4, Samsung Galaxy Note 5, Samsung Galaxy Note 6, Samsung Galaxy Note 7, Samsung Galaxy Note 8, and Samsung Galaxy Note 9.

The process to measure SpO2 with a Samsung mobile

When blood saturation levels are maintained in the proper manner, they ensure that the cells of the body receive the oxygen that they require. It will be measured with the Samsung Health application, which can be downloaded from the Google Play Store if it is not already installed on the phone if it is one of the Samsung devices on the list. When measuring the saturation of the blood, this measurement is accomplished particularly with a sequence of shocks on the finger, which is where the device is positioned.

If you want to use your Samsung mobile to detect blood oxygen levels, follow these steps:

  • Utilize the Samsung Health application on your Samsung smartphone to get started. Look for the option “Manage items” at the bottom of the page. Click on “Oxygen in blood,” then on “+” to have it shown on the application’s home screen, and then on “Save” to complete the process. After that, go to the home screen and choose “Blood oxygen,” then place your finger on the sensor on the back to begin the measurement. Hold your finger down until the application displays a message indicating that you may uninstall it

Other options for measuring SPO2

Samsung has decided to discontinue the use of the blood oxygen sensor in its upcoming devices. A wristwatch, in addition to smartphones, is an alternative to consider. The Korean company offers a variety of timepieces that may be used to take precise measurements, with costs that vary based on the demands. The watches that measure SPO2 are as follows: Samsung Galaxy Fit, Galaxy Fit 2, Galaxy Watch, Watch Active, Watch Active 2, and Watch Ative 3. Samsung Galaxy Fit, Galaxy Fit 2, Galaxy Watch, Watch Active, Watch Active 2, and Watch Ative 3.

Other sports bands and watches that measure blood oxygen levels include the Amazfit GTS 2, Amazfit GTR 2, Amazfit X, Amazfit Band 5, Garmin Vvosmart 4, Garmin Venu SQ, Garmin Vvoactive 4 / 4S, Xiaomi Mi Watch, Honor Band 5, Honor Magic Watch 2, Honor Watch GS Pro, Honor Watch ES, Huawei Band 4 Pro, Huawei Band 4, Huawei Watch GT2 and Huawei Watch GT2e.

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Accuracy of Samsung Smartphone Integrated Pulse Oximetry Meets Full FDA Clearance Standards for Clinical Use

Background: Pulse oximetry is utilized as an evaluation technique to determine the degree of COVID-19 infection and to identify individuals who are at risk of having a negative result. 1,2,3,4 As infection rates rise in various worldwide locations, including the United Kingdom, the United States, and South Africa5, the pandemic emphasizes the importance of precise pulse oximetry, particularly at home. There are over 100 million Samsung cellphones in use worldwide that are equipped with specialized biosensors (Maxim Integrated Inc.

  1. We carried out extensive in-human hypoxia testing on the Samsung S9 smartphone to evaluate whether the integrated hardware fulfills all FDA/ISO standards for clinical pulse oximetry.
  2. Methods: It was determined if the integrated pulse oximetry in the Samsung 9 smartphone was accurate at stable arterial oxygen saturations (SaO2) ranging from 70 percent to 100 percent in 12 healthy people using the smartphone.
  3. Blood samples were drawn from the arterial blood vessels at each plateau, and the saturation of each blood sample was determined using an ABL-90FLEX blood gas analyzer.
  4. A total of 257 data points were analyzed using blood samples acquired from 12 human participants, with the mean standard deviation (RMSD) averaging 2.6 percent.
  5. This is the first report of smartphone-derived pulse oximetry results that meet or exceed the accuracy certification requirements of the FDA and ISO standards.

Figures

This image illustrates the placement of the SpO 2sensor on back of the smartphone, demonstrating that it is completely distinct from other phone components like as the camera. Figure 1:(A) shows how the sensor is connected to the phone’s other components such as the camera. The specialized light sensor and LEDs for the pulse oximetry function are displayed in greater detail in the enlarged picture (B). Four LEDs are included on the gadget, two of which are saved for future additions to the functionality.

The photodetector is coupled to an analog channel with exceptionally low noise, which allows for measurement on a wide range of skin tones and hues.

In this experiment to determine the bias in blood oxygen measurements, data was obtained from 12 human participants, as shown in Figure 3.

In the plot, each point corresponds to a pair of blood oxygen levels measured by the hemoximeter and recorded by the Samsung Phone in conjunction with the reading. In the graph below, the highest and lower boundaries of agreement, according to Bland Altman 2007, are depicted as red and blue lines.

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  • Using an app, a smartphone biosensor can measure clinical pulse oximetry and can be used safely and reliably by a wide range of patients. Browne SH, Bernstein M, Pan SC, Gonzalez Garcia J, Easson CA, Huang CC, Vaida F.Browne SH, Bernstein M, Pan SC, Gonzalez Garcia J, Easson CA, Huang CC, Vaida F.Browne SH, et al. Epub 2020 Sep 11. Chest. 2021 Feb
  • 159(2):724-732. doi: 10.11016/j.chest.2020.08.2104. PubMed PMID: 32926871 This free PMC article is titled The Accuracy of Six Inexpensive Pulse Oximeters That Have Not Been Cleared by the Food and Drug Administration: The Potential Global Public Health Implications. Lipnick MS, Feiner JR, Au P, Bernstein M, Bickler PE. Lipnick MS, Feiner JR, Au P, Bernstein M, Bickler PE. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001300. Anesth Analg 2016 Aug
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  • 96 Suppl A113:1-44. PMID:30460761 Review

References

  1. In a study of 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area, the authors found that the majority of them had comorbidities and suffered poor outcomes. 2052–2059 in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6775-DOI-PMC-PubMed
  1. Gandhi RT, Lynch JB, del Rio C. Mild or Moderate Covid-19. Solomon CG, ed. New England Journal of Medicine. April 2020. Gandhi RT, Lynch JB, del Rio C. Mild or Moderate Covid-19. doi:10.1056/nejmcp2009249-DOI-PubMed
  1. Berlin DA, Gulick RM, Martinez FJ. Severe Covid-19. Solomon CG, ed. New England Journal of Medicine. May 2020. doi:10.1056/nejmcp2009575-DOI-PubMed
  2. Berlin DA, Gulick RM, Martinez FJ. Severe Covid-19.
  1. Nicola M., Niall N., Sohrabi C., Khan M., O’Neill N. (2020). A Review of the Evidence-Based Management Guidelines for the COVID-19 Pandemic – This article is a review of the evidence-based management guidelines. The International Journal of Surgery is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes peer-reviewed articles on a variety of surgical topics (London, England). doi:10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.001-DOI-PMC-PubMed
  1. The most up-to-date worldwide coronavirus data, charts, and maps are available (n.d.). The following information was obtained from the graphics.reuters.com website:

Reliability of Smartphone Applications for the Quantification of Oxygen Saturation

Smartphone technology is fast changing and progressing, with many of them now having health applications that may be used for oximetry purposes, such as the Samsung Health/S Health application, which can be downloaded for free from the Samsung App Store. One of the most significant reasons for monitoring patients with COVID-19, as well as those with other health disorders, is to measure oxygen saturation. It is possible to utilize these applications for detecting oxygen saturation in order to give a handy answer for clinical judgments.

Methods

Oxygen saturation readings were taken with a low-cost portable digital display (liquid crystal display (LCD)) finger pulse oximeter and the Samsung Health application for a Samsung Galaxy smartphone equipped with a sensor and camera flash. The dependability of the measurements within the session was established in order to assess their consistency. ICCs (intra-class correlation coefficients) were obtained for both approaches, and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) were generated for each method.

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Results

In the average, there was a statistically significant difference between pulse oximeter and Samsung Health application measurements (t125=4.407, p0.001), and on average, pulse oximeter measurement was 0.510 points higher than Samsung Health application measurement (95 percent confidence interval = 0.281-0.740). The ratings obtained from the pulse oximeter and the Samsung Health application were modestly associated (r = 0.462). In the intra-session reliability test, the findings revealed an acceptable ICC value of 0.557, showing reasonable reliability and consistency in oxygen saturation measurements when using both techniques of measurement.

Conclusion

When it comes to measuring oxygen saturation, smartphone health applications may be utilized with reasonable reliability.

Introduction

The COVID situation necessitates the need for us to handle patients through electronic means rather than in person. An oxygen saturation (SpO 2) measurement using a certified pulse oximeter is often performed on a patient with respiratory difficulties. This is especially critical in individuals with COVID-19 who are sick since hypoxia is a significant warning symptom of acute pneumonia in these patients. However, while in-person assessments are performed using a typical pulse oximeter put on the patient’s finger, few patients have access to this type of equipment at home.

  • One of the most important reasons to monitor patients with COVID-19 is to check their oxygen saturation in order to prevent them from slipping into hypoxia.
  • If you find yourself in this situation, smartphone technology may be quite useful in providing convenient solutions in patient care.
  • The brevity of medical equipment is no exception to this trend.
  • Because of this, we came up with the concept of testing smartphone applications as oxygen saturation monitors to give an additional simple means of oxygen saturation measurement to make up for the lack of such instruments in severe emergency scenarios.

When it came to detecting oxygen saturation in healthy participants at rest, our study question was, “Are smartphone applications as accurate and dependable as portable oximeters?” For this reason, we undertook a study with the primary goal of comparing a smartphone application for monitoring oxygen saturation with an inexpensive portable finger pulse oximeter to provide an answer to this topic.

MaterialsMethods

Participants in this study were healthy adults of both genders ranging in age from 18 to 75 years and not suffering from any ailment. Informed written agreement was acquired before participants were allowed to participate in the study. 126 healthy volunteers from the Northwest School of Medicine in Peshawar, Pakistan, and its linked hospitals took part in this cross-sectional study. The participants were conveniently sampled from the Northwest School of Medicine and its affiliated hospitals. All participants were excluded from the research if they had any confirmed respiratory illness, active disease status, scars, wounds, or any other abnormalities in the digital area of their index finger (digital area of the index finger).

The entire research took around six months to complete.

When the index finger is held to the camera for 10-30 seconds, the data for oxygen saturation is collected using a smartphone application (Samsung Health/S Health for Samsung Galaxy phone), which uses the sensor and camera flash to measure oxygen saturation when the index finger is held to the camera for 10-30 seconds, and a low-cost portable digital display (liquid crystal display (LCD)) finger pulse oximeter.

We thought that this one-of-a-kind feature of Samsung would be quite useful, particularly in light of COVID-19, which recommends that patients have as little physical touch as possible.

Oxygen saturation was tested three times in total, using two different procedures.

Data analysis

The data was examined in an anonymous manner, with total anonymity and confidentiality maintained. For qualitative variables, a descriptive analysis was carried out using percentages as the dependent variable. The following is how the difference in measurement between the two ways was calculated as a new variable: Portable Oximeter is the result of the difference in measurements. Samsung Health Measurement is a type of measurement. The mean score of both approaches was also computed and entered into the equation as a new variable.

A paired t-test was used to see whether there were any systematic differences between the means of the two techniques (the Samsung Health application and the portable oximeter).

In order to verify the consistency between the measures, three successive measurements with each method were taken to calculate the intra-session reliability (the instantaneous test-retest reliability based on the mean of three measurements).

The following is how the ICC estimations and their 95 percent confidence intervals were interpreted: Poor reliability is defined as 95 percent confidence interval of ICC value less than 0.5, moderate reliability is defined as 95 percent confidence interval of ICC value between 0.5 and 0.75, and good to excellent reliability is defined as 95 percent confidence interval of ICC value between 0.75 and 0.9.

  1. For the purpose of comparing the amount of agreement between the two measurement methods, the Bland-Altman plot was utilized (Samsung Health versus portable oximeter).
  2. The mean of the two measurements was represented by the X-axis on the plot, and the difference between the two measurements was represented by the Y-axis.
  3. Furthermore, a linear regression analysis was carried out to determine if there was any proportionate bias between the two measurement methods, with a p-value of 0.05 being used.
  4. Pearson correlations (ranging from -1, which represents a perfectly negative correlation, to +1, which represents a perfectly positive correlation) for both approaches with a p-value of 0.05 were also provided.

The following assumptions were made about the strength of the link between the two methods: There are three types of correlation: small/weak correlation (r = 0.1-0.3), medium/moderate correlation (r = 0.3-0.5), and large/strong correlation (r = 0.5).

Results

The participants’ demographic characteristics are presented in Table 1 below. For the purpose of determining the differences between oxygen saturation levels determined by a pulse oximeter and those measured by the Samsung Health/S Health application, a paired t-test was performed. Data is reported in Table 2 of this report. It was discovered that there was a statistically significant average difference between pulse oximeter and Samsung Health application measurements (t125=4.407, 0.001), and that on average, pulse oximeter measurement was 0.510 points higher than Samsung Health application measurement (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.281-0.740) in the study.

Characteristics Frequency (%) Minimum Maximum
Gender
Male 73 (57.9%)
Female 53 (42.1%)
Age (mean + SD = 37.34 + 14.754)
25 years 27 (21.4) 18 73
25–45 years 69 (54.8)
45 years 30 (23.8)
Height in ft (mean + SD = 5.46 + 0.316) 5.00 6.00
Weight in kg (mean + SD = 69.59 + 14.73) 43 120
BMI in kg/m 2(mean + SD = 24.59 + 4.540) 12.70 42.10
Underweight (18.5) 7 (5.6%)
Normal (18.5–24.9) 65 (52%)
Overweight (25–29.9) 41 (32.8%)
Obese (30) 12 (9.6%)
Method Mean + SD Mean of the difference + SD Pearson (p-value) 95% CI of the difference
Portable finger pulse oximeter 97.94 + 0.915 0.510 + 1.300 0.462 (p0.001) 0.281–0.740
Samsung Health application 97.43 + 1.439

The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for oxygen saturation obtained with a pulse oximeter and the Samsung Health application is shown in Table 3. The reliability data for oxygen saturation measured with the Samsung Health application are shown in Table 3. The internal consistency of the two approaches was moderate, as indicated by a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.59. With an acceptable ICC value of 0.557, the intra-session reliability test resulted in reasonable reliability and consistent results for the measurement of oxygen saturation using a portable pulse oximeter and the Samsung Health application, according to the findings.

Method Mean + SD ICC (95% CI) p-value Cronbach’s alpha
Portable finger pulse oximeter 97.94 + 0.915 0.557 (0.347–0.696) 0.001 0.59
Samsung Health application 97.43 + 1.439

The Bland-Altman plot was constructed to demonstrate the level of agreement between the two oxygen saturation measurement methods. The plot demonstrated that both methods were equally consistent in their measurements of oxygen saturation because the plot showed a consistently equal distribution of data points scattered above and below zero, indicating that there is no consistent bias of one measurement method over the other, as indicated by the plot showing consistently equal distribution of data points scattered above and below zero (Figure1).

Furthermore, the presence of any potential proportional bias between the two methods was determined by conducting a regression analysis, which revealed a lower (beta = -0.598) unstandardized beta value for the coefficient of mean with a statistically significant result (p0.001), indicating the presence of proportional bias between the two oxygen saturation measurement methods.

Discussion

This study was carried out to investigate the reliability and consistency of smartphone applications (the Samsung Health application) while measuring oxygen saturation in healthy adult adults when compared to a portable finger pulse oximeter in healthy adult individuals. When faced with unpredictable situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, where in-person contact is not encouraged, and in other situations where it is difficult to measure oxygen saturation with a finger pulse oximeter or when they are unavailable due to a shortage, smartphone applications can be used to reliably measure oxygen saturation.

As a result of our findings, we concluded that a portable finger pulse oximeter and the Samsung Health application were somewhat reliable for assessing oxygen saturation in healthy adults.

The two measurement techniques also revealed a high degree of agreement in the assessment of oxygen saturation as well as a strong positive correlation.

Jordan et al.

In situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, where healthcare systems become overburdened and not all patients are able to be admitted to hospitals, these technologically advanced health applications could be used to accurately monitor oxygen saturations of otherwise stable individuals in their homes, as well as clinics and hospitals.

Additionally, Tomlinson et al.

More research should be conducted on real patients in clinical settings, hypoxic adult patients, and exercising patients to determine whether smartphone applications and portable finger pulse oximeters produce the same consistency and level of agreement for oxygen saturation measurements in a variety of contexts and settings.

Because technology is constantly evolving and progressing, it is plausible to encourage the use of these smartphone applications for oximetry purposes, particularly in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, to remotely monitor patients’ oxygen saturation in order to prevent hypoxia in certain circumstances and to preserve hospital capacity for more critically ill patients in the future.

There were several limitations to this investigation.

Second, because the study was done on healthy volunteers, the findings may not be as reliable as would have been expected in actual patients with illness conditions that necessitate oxygen saturation measurements and continuous monitoring of oxygen saturation.

It is necessary to conduct further study in this field, especially on actual patients.

Conclusions

It has been demonstrated that the Samsung Health/S Heath application can be used to reliably measure oxygen saturation, as evidenced by moderately consistent results and a high level of agreement between measurements of oxygen saturation taken with the Samsung Health application and the portable finger pulse oximeter For example, in scenarios like as the COVID-19 pandemic, where in-person contact is discouraged and it is critical to monitor the oxygen saturation of patients, smartphone applications can be utilized to make therapeutic choices based on the data collected via oximetry.

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